Full report coming soon.
Toss this ugly 3-pronged hook into a big school of 2-inch bunker ("peanut bunker"), snag a little fish, and let it drop down below the school where the hungry bass are waiting. The bass biting felt like a tiny little bump. Set the hook, and get ready for a fight.
Bass Sushi, Bass Sandwiches, Bass Tacos, Blackened Bass...
I had seen what I thought to be a small Hen of the Woods mushroom during the day, and went to fetch it at night. I reached down to pluck the mushroom in the darkness, and found that it was sort of buried in pine needles and leaves and was much bigger than I expected. Probably 10 pounds or so. I made dinner (a mushroom cream sauce with homemade salt and cider wine) and still had lots left over. I pickled some using this recipe.
It all started after M tasted some of the naturally sparkling Saratoga Springs mineral water and mentioned how salty it tastes. I boiled down some of the sulphury water to try and make salt. The long story is here. When the water first started boiling, a lot of calcium sank to the bottom, which I strained out. Luckily the sulfur smell went away as it boiled. The water tasted saltier and saltier as it reduced.
I boiled the water all the way down until nothing was left except a salty paste.
I suspect that the remaining 'salt' is half salt and half calcium judging by the taste and texture, but perfectly usable as a seasoning. A lot of the excess calcium probably could have been removed by straining later in the process. Here is the process, with the final product at the end:
Weird, I just noticed that calcium carbonate is a salt, too. I guess I have some learning to do about what exactly is a salt?
This got me thinking - what's the worst place you could make salt from? How about Coney Island sea water? Well, the folks from Urban Sproule tried it and are now in business making local NYC sea salt:
"At first, said Gallagher, they wanted to make salt from each of the five boroughs. “But we tried with Coney Island salt and it was just gray and gross,” chimed in Sproule. Eventually, using their Greenmarket connections, Glenn Bickleman and Charlie Corriss of American Seafood, agreed to fill five-gallon buckets with ocean water drawn 30 miles off the Montauk coast. “I want my salt,” says Gallagher, “to come from where my fish comes from.”"
The company I work for has an office in Lyon, France. While visiting our office recently, S, an employee from the Lyon office brought a bag of "Vichy Pastilles" to share, candy made with the mineral salts from the mineral water in Vichy, France. These were orange-flavored and absolutely delicious. I'm not sure how to describe it, except that it is like a gourmet antacid tablet.
It got me thinking of the springs in Saratoga and the funky naturally-sparkling water that flows freely there. I loaded up the car with the empty bottles and my bottle capper, and headed to Saratoga Spa State Park. I stopped by various springs, tasting the water and filling the bottles, labeling each cap with which spring it came from. I'm really not sure what the plan was, but I had a few things in mind:
1) It was an opportunity to practice bottling stuff
2) I was curious to know how well fizziness would last in a properly capped bottle
3) I kind of like the funky tasting water and wouldn't mind keeping some around the house
The last spring I planned to visit was the Orenda spring, next to where we have been having our annual company picnics. As I filled bottles, a tour group walked walked up to the spring. I moved my bottling operation out of the way to let everyone taste the water. The tour guide was a geyser of information about the springs, clearly passionate about the spring water. He asked me, 'how long have you been drinking the spring water'? I told him it was my first time. He mentioned that there are 18 springs total. Upon my asking, he said that the fizziest spring was the Hathorn spring in downtown Saratoga. He handed me a brochure and lead the group along to the next spring. Me? I packed up my stuff and headed to the car to find this Hathorn spring.
There are several Hathorn springs. I went to Hathorn spring #1. It was extremely fizzy like the man said. Passers by finished coffees, then refilled their Dunkin Donuts cups with the sparkling water. I filled up my remaining bottles, grabbed lunch, and headed home.
I felt kind of silly as I set down 20 or so bottles of stinking bubbly waters. There's no way I'm going to drink all of it before it's time to bottle the cider that's brewing down in the basement. I poured myself some and offered M a taste. She took a sip, and said, "Wow. It tastes very salty and sulfury." I found her discerning taste interesting. I hadn't noticed the salt, but now that you mention it...
I'm always thinking about the question, 'where would I get (x) if it wasn't at the supermarket?'. Two really crucial items I use every day come to mind. The first is cooking fat. I suppose I could get it from animals, but it's also available from plants and I wonder how *I* would go about extracting it. The other is salt. Salt is an amazing preservative, salt would be sorely missed if the supermarket didn't exist. When M mentioned the salty taste, it got the wheels in my head spinning. Maybe if I boil down the spring water, I can end up with a pile of salt. Of course there's the issue of having lots of other minerals to extract, but whatever. Let's try it and see what happens.
As soon as I started boiling the Saratoga spring water, a white sandy substance appeared in piles at the bottom of the cookpot. I strained it through a cheesecloth, and put the remaining water back on the stove to continue boiling down.
I tasted the white substance. It seemed very similar to the hard water deposits we get all over the house (on clean dishes, in pipes, in the dishwasher, etc. etc.). Some sort of calcium. Calcium carbonate maybe? Calcium carbonate is a common ingredient in cheesemaking, also added to commercial nut milk to give it 'more calcium than dairy milk'.
Ok, so I have a pile of calcium carbonate (or something similar) before me. I Googled uses for calcium carbonate. Antacid tablets caught my attention. I had a huge eureka moment when I realized that's what the Vichy Pastilles tasted like. Which makes sense, because they are made using mineral water. A potential recipe for Vichy Pastilles (or more accurately, Saratoga Pastilles) came to mind. I hopped on my bike and raced to the supermarket to pick up some oranges. Back at the house, I juiced and zested one of the oranges into a boiling pot. I added sugar and reduced it a bit.
The juice was then poured into the pile of calcium on a paper towel, and the moisture was wrung out of it using the paper towel to strain. What was left was an orange pile of damp chalk dust. I grabbed two homebrewing airlock caps, pressed the dust into one and fit the other cap inside the first, and pressed the dust into a solid piece of candy.
This went into the slow-cook oven at a very low temperature to dry.
The piece of candy spent 30 minutes or so drying. It was not completely dry by this time, but I have no patience so out of the oven it came. I split it in two so M could try it. Popping the half-candy in my mouth, it tasted a bit sweet and orangy, and disintegrated as soon as it hit saliva. I told M to expect something along the lines of an antacid tablet. "That's exactly what it tastes like", was her response after trying one.
So there you have it. A rudimentary Saratoga Pastille. A lot of work for one candy, but exciting to have an idea of how to make them. And Rolaids. And Necco Wafers. And Flintstone Vitamins.
While I was pickling some excess Hen of the Woods mushroom, I poured vinegar into a measuring cup. Peering into the cup, I noticed a gag-reflex-inducing haze floating in the clear liquid. I reached my hand in and pulled out a clam goobery slime. Vinegar Mother. I have read about Vinegar Mother. I've read recipes that if I remember correctly involve leaving a bowl of mashed up rotten fruit outside for several weeks, unleashing fruit flys and bacteria on the mash until eventually it evolves into the ultimate in nasty: a floating slimy vinegar mother. Dropping the slime into alcohol will convert the alcohol to vinegar.
It's kinda hard to see, but here's a picture inside the vinegar bottle, the vinegar mother is the cloudy murk:
I'm stoked to have found it. The timing is perfect. I have apple cider almost ready to go fermenting in the basement. And I don't know that I can stomach the above recipe for making vinegar mother, but it turns out the mother created itself all on it's own. Hopefully I can add the mother to cider and make some cider vinegar.
Quote from the Mother of vinegar Wikipedia page:
"Mother of vinegar can also form in store-bought vinegar if there is some non-fermented sugar and/or alcohol contained in the vinegar. This is more common in unpasteurized vinegar. While not appetizing in appearance, mother of vinegar is completely harmless and the surrounding vinegar does not have to be discarded because of it. It can be filtered out using a coffee filter, used to start a bottle of vinegar, or simply ignored."
A.K.A. "Bad Idea Chowder", with Oyster, Painted Suillus, Shaggy Mane, Puffball, and Cinnabar Red Chanterelle mushrooms. Using apples instead of potatoes which worked pretty well:
I'm trying different commercial ciders, and mostly focusing on ciders without extra added flavors (maple, cinnamon, ginger, hops, etc.). I'm curious to see what real hard cider tastes like.
Nine Pin Cider (Draft, Brewed in Albany, served at Druthers) - Very similar to Mott's apple juice, including the slightly syrupy-sweet taste. Plus alcohol. Nice and light, though I think even the slightest taste of syrupy-sweetness is not to my liking. And man, a pint of cider is a lot for this beer/wine hybrid.
Stella Artois Cidre (Bottle) - Crystal clear, very light carbonation, sweetness really well balanced so that it tastes neither dry nor particularly sweet. "Off-dry" describes it perfectly. Apple-y without tasting like apple juice. Very wine-like. Two thumbs up. (After doing some research, the ingredients list is long and a bit suspect - apple juice concentrate, natural flavoring, sugars, several additives, etc.). I've always like Stella, cleverly marketed at fair-weather weekend snob wannabes like myself. "Who raised you?" asked my Dad when I was caught ordering one.
Naked Flock Cider (Draft, Warwick, NY, Served at Henry Street Tap Room, Saratoga) - Ok but kinda tastes like something was brewed, then additions were made with the goal to bring the general flavor back to that of apple juice (plus alcohol). Crystal clear, beautiful effervescence. But not something I would drink unless I had a strong craving for apple juice.
Cider Creek Hard Cider (Bottle, Canisteo, NY) - Very light color, champagney sparkle. Tastes like a better-than-usual New York State white wine, with a hint of apple. Very light flavor, seeming almost watered down on the first taste, which is maybe appropriate for a pint of cider. The driest of the ciders I've tried so far, yet it is still a little on the sweet side, but well balanced and really tasty. Two thumbs up. The best so far, but I'm still waiting to taste a cider that is actually dry.
Angry Orchard Traditional Dry (Bottle) - Dark apple juice color, very slight carbonation. I had some hopes for this one, being that it is labelled 'dry'. However if I think of wine while I sip, this cider tastes like an appley sweet white wine. It has the apple juice plus alcohol flavor, with slight dark apple taste, making it tad more exciting just apple juice. Ingredients include 'natural flavors', etc. making this another disappointing cider. Or should I say awesome cider, because my crappy first attempt, fraught with mistakes, tastes way better IMO. :)
Doc's Draft Hard Apple Cider (Bottle) - Light color, champagne-like bubbles. Appropriately sweet, drier than all the others I've tried so far and it's still not exactly dry. If it were wine, it would be pretty good, even though I don't like a sweet wine. Label states, 'Made from pressed NY state apples, fermented with champagne yeast and malic acid.' *Could be* orc mischief (even evil cider is made from pressed apples). But sounds reasonable. And it's pretty close by. This place deserves a visit for sure. Also worth mentioning is that this cider was inexpensive compared to the others. I think it was roughly $5 for a 22 oz. bottle, sitting next to other ciders selling for $10 or more. Three thumbs up. See here for a video from Doc's cidery.
Le Brun Organic Cidre (750ml Cork Bottle) - Light and bubbly, low alcohol at four percent, and very dry. Made and bottled in Brittany, France, with an Illinois importer. Unpasteurized. Really good and interesting, although I definitely tasted more than a hint of cleaning supplies. Not a bad taste, but makes me wonder. Is this how it tasted when it left foreign soil or was some mishandling involved? Excellent regardless. (Relevant quote from a great cider making podcast: "A lot of the things we associate with ciders made in Normandy or Brittany, we might think of those as faults if they appeared in our new world clean ciders but those are the exact same things that make those traditions, that define what those traditions are.")
Downeast Cider House (Draft, served at Park Side Eatery in Saratoga) - Oh my god. This tastes like exactly what I've been looking for. Cloudy, with a tiny bit of bubbliness. Dry with a rich cidery character, rather than the apple-juicyiness of some other ciders. This is by far the best I've tasted so far. Perfect.
1911 Original Hard Cider (Bottle) - Foamy head that quickly subsided. This cider falls under the apple juicy category, but is one of the best of the apple juicy ciders I've tasted, clean and dry. I'm not sure it's my thing, but it could grow on me. Definitely one thumb up, maybe one and a half. (And please remove a thumb from the Stella Cider, er I mean Cidre, my tastes are changing).
* C1 (Cider 1) - Cloudy with no carbonation. Very dry, doesn't taste very apple-y, and has a bit of sour (as in sour beer) taste. Noticeably watered down. Drinkable and enjoyable, not bad for a first run. The biggest room for improvement is not to water it down. I like the sour taste, but could be minimized. (Note: After resting in bottles for a week or so, the 'watered down' taste is gone, and the sour taste is very agreeable.) After tasting some less messed up ciders, the sour taste feels like a bad sign. Not terrible, in fact gives it a uniqueness that I might miss when it's gone, but not ideal.
* CS1 - Cider Soda - Sweet, slightly fizzy, slightly alcoholic version of C1 (before it fermented all the way). Really tasty and fun to drink, but challenging to tame the carbonation.
* GC1 - Grape Cider - Cider with a small bit of wild grape juice added. Really well balanced, simple, underpowering, light wine-like taste. I'm very tempted to make more of this stuff. Doesn't taste like cider at all, but really bumps up the quality of the light grape juice.
* C2 100% apple cider, no water, yeast or anything added (aside from a bit of no-rinse sanitizer), fermented for about a month naturally. At this point it was still very high in sugar, low on alcohol. Tastes great, similar to the CS1. After bottling and leaving in the fridge for a week or so, has a pleasant slightly complex sweetness with a hint of alcohol, would benefit from further fermentation. Bottles that did not make it to the fridge and instead were left in the warmer kitchen fermented more. These were great. Nice and fizzy with a magnificent (but still definitely on the sweet side) rich fermented cider taste. Such a clean taste, I think this is what I was hoping for from cider with no additives. I also pasteurized a few of these bottles, and they still tasted really good. It's only my prejudice that is keeping me from saying pasteurization didn't affect the taste taste (I need to do a side-by-side comparison). I should also mention that the sweetness of these ciders, even the excessively sweet ones, is incomparable to that of most of the commercial ciders. It's a complex, exciting and in all but the extreme cases well-balanced sweetness. As opposed to the overpowering medicinal sticky sweetness of many of the commercial ciders.
... To be continued
I found some really tiny Hen of the Woods (Maitake) mushrooms today:
Also found a few honey mushrooms, and cooked them up with maitake in a creamy wine sauce over brown rice:
The bread on the side is a spinach feta scone from Bake For You in Albany.
Fermented pokeberry ink with a stick pen:
Recently I've been trying to identify berries that I see around the area. Pokeweed is common, including a large plant growing on the side of my house. The bamboo-like stalks grow very tall. As a kid, stick-in-hand, it was always great fun to have at a large patch of the plant. A swung stick slices through the thick stalks like a machete, and a 10-year-old could make quick work of a thousand weeds in a few short minutes.
Dark purple berries grow on the plant, however they are apparently dangerously poisonous. However! Juice from the berries can be made into temporary ink. Fermentation makes the ink permanent. Click here for more details about making the ink.
Types of Cider
Sweet Cider: Straight from the press (blender)
Cider Soda: During active fermentation, the cider is fizzy, some of the sweetness is taken away due to mild fermentation, with a hint of alcohol. This stuff is *really* tasty. Better than sweet or hard cider in my opinion. At least of the stuff I have made so far. Just need to be careful: either keep under an airlock, keep it loosely capped, or regularly release pressure, otherwise bottles might explode.
Hard Cider: The cider after it has completely fermented. Very dry because pretty much every last bit of sugar has been converted to alcohol.
Pressing the Cider
I am using a Vitamix blender to crush the apples. The process I use is to:
1) Pick the apples from the tree, ideally after it hasn't rained for several days so that naturally occurring yeast has a chance to build up on the apples.
2) Disinfect work surfaces, blender, containers, knife, hands, etc. using IO Star no-rinse sanitizer.
3) Halve apples, remove stem, and scoop core/seeds with a spoon.
4) Chop apples
5) Blend, adding liquid (cider or water) to make blending easier.
6) For sweet cider, use a nut milk bag to strain cider from the apple puree. Or, for hard cider, place the puree directly into a sterilized fermentation bucket sealed with an airlock.
Fermenting the Cider
1) Place unpasteurized apple puree into a sterilized fermentation bucket sealed with an airlock.
2) Leave alone for 3-5 days. This gives the natural yeast on the skins a chance to permeate and multiply in the cider liquid. Maybe punch it down once per day to stir up the floating apple bits that are exposed to air. **Note: steps 1 and 2 might be better served by starting with a small pied du cuvée, then adding that to fresh-pressed cider.**
3) Strain the cider from the solids, squeezing out as much liquid as possible using a nut milk bag.
4) The cider is naturally sparkling cider soda at this stage, and should remain so for several days as the sugar slowly ferments into alcohol. It might be nice to try putting it in a bottling bucket (a plastic bucket with a spigot) at this stage, and over a week or so pour glasses of the fermenting cider.
5) Primary fermentation: Put cider into a glass carboy or fermentation bucket sealed with an airlock. I don't think it is necessary to fill the carboy at this stage because co2 from active fermentation should fill any airspace in the carboy. Primary fermentation should take maybe a week.
6) Secondary fermentation: Transfer to another carboy or fermentation bucket using a siphon using a racking cane to ensure that the sediment is left in the bottom of the primary. Seal with an airlock.
7) Leave in secondary fermentation for a few weeks to months.
8) Transfer to bottles, possibly adding an ounce of cane sugar (dissolved in boiled water) per gallon first in order to carbonate the bottled cider. Better yet, maybe add some fresh-pressed cider for it's sugar content.
Hard Cider (C1)
On my first batch of hard cider, I made a few mistakes. I fussed with it too much, not a big deal. I used a faulty airlock (hole) for several days during primary fermentation, maybe not a big deal because the cider was actively exhaling out the hole. I kept the seeds in the apples, also not a big deal, but seeds contain some bad stuff that I would prefer to keep out of the cider. Also, when I transferred to secondary, I wanted the carboy to be full so I added water, and you can taste the fact that it's a little watered down. I bottled several bottles with screw caps and no sugar. The unsugared cider is extremely dry, probably too dry. After 1 month and 5 days since picking the apples, I added sugar and bottled. I expected the sugar to add carbonation, however no carbonation occurred, at least as of a few days later. I'm guessing all the yeast died, which is a good thing. The sugar instead took away some of the excessive dryness, and now it tastes quite good, although you can taste the fact that it is slightly watered down.
Cider Soda (CS1)
I bottled some of C1 during mid-primary fermentation using twist caps. It was really tasty stuff, although I had to constantly release pressure from the bottles.
Grape Cider (GC1)
I made a small batch of cider with a bit of wild grape juice added to give it a little red wine character. The mistake I made here was that I strained the cider from the solids without letting the yeast build up in the cider first. This meant that the airlock never actively bubbled. After a few weeks, the sugar content was gone, so it seems to have fermented. The grape cider, at the time of bottling, smelled like dirty socks, but tasted ok. After maybe 3 weeks, this has been bottled without adding sugar. After bottling, the bad smell went away, and the wine tastes really simple, clean, and right in between dry and sweet. I'm trying to place the taste. It could be a light rosé wine, or maybe a wine you might get at the farmer's market.
Next time I would like to avoid all of the above mistakes. Also I would like to try keeping a batch of cider soda in a bucket with a spigot to be enjoyed as it ferments. At some point I would like to try killing off all bad stuff with sulphites and pitch a beer yeast. Just to see how different it ends up from the all-natural approach. Maybe a small batch. Also, I have been fermenting at summer basement temperatures. I could probably ferment at warmer temps.
Mistakes to Avoid
* Don't add water to increase volume
* Don't rinse apples or strain the cider right away if using natural fermentation. It needs to ferment with the skins if using natural yeast.
* Don't process the apples immediately after picking. Give them a week or even months to mature, increasing the sugar content. (I'm way to impatient to obey this one).
* Avoid oxygen exposure as much as possible. My current processing involves a lot of oxygen exposure.
* The cider spend lot of time exposed to air. A faster grinding/pressing process or having help would lessen this a bit.
* It seemed like pressing cider immediately after grinding was a little easier and more effective than pressing 3 days after grinding. So maybe it makes sense to do a small pied de cuvée rather than try to build yeast in the entire mass of apples. This would also help reduce some of the oxidation because the surface apple mush turns dark over the 3 days. (Bingo - I just found this. Really interesting that he mentions the acetone smell which plagued my natural wine making attempts.).
* 50 apples made 1 gallon of cider.
* 15 medium-sized apples yielded 10.5 cups of apple mush, which made 6.5 cups of sweet cider.
* "allow the fermentation itself to generate the carbon dioxide by 'natural conditioning'. One way of doing this is by racking and bottling the fermentation early, say at a gravity of 1.010, and allowing the cider to finish fermenting and to mature in the bottle."
* This is interesting: "Sweeter ciders are slowly fermented and repeatedly racked (moved to new containers) to strain the yeast that feeds on the cider’s natural sugars. Dryer ciders (meaning they contain less sugar) allow the yeast to consume the majority of cider’s natural sugars and result in a less sweet drink with a higher alcohol content."
* Starch/sugar in apples - Apples start out starchy, and eventually the starch converts to sugar. You can use the starch-iodine test to get an idea of how far along the apple is in this process. As I understand it, keeping apples in storage after they are picked for 5 days to several months helps move the conversion process along.
* Picking apples in France sometimes involves picking up apples from the ground: (Link here)"At harvest time the Sallins' trees are given a good shake and the apples that drop are then vacuumed up. It does not matter if they are bruised, says Mr. Sallin, for they are made into cider immediately."
* This video says they don't add anything (yeast, sulfites, sugar?), how do they manage to ferment for 5 months and end up with a carbonated product? Hmm, they could add additional cider to add sugar. But how come their yeast survives that long when mine didn't? Lower temps?
8/29 - process started, chopped apples
8/30 - carboy is fullish
Second Roundage (C2)
My friend A was kind enough to let me pick apples at his house. He's got three beautiful apple trees with all kinds of apples, big ones too. Hopefully I can turn it into a proper batch of hard cider. And sweet cider. And everything in between - it's a *lot* of apples. Two big bags of apples pureed into 6 gallons of mush, and that was only roughly half of what I collected:
After 3 days of letting the natural yeast activate in the 6 gallons of apple mush, I used my poor overworked nut milk bag to juice maybe 3.3 gallons of cider. I then rinsed, ground, and juiced enough apples to fill the carboy to roughly 5 gallons total. Within a few hours, tiny bubbles have started forming at the surface, and the airlock is bubbling slowly, but progressively faster.
Three days later the cider is fermenting aggressively. I removed 12 ounces of cider because it started to foam over. The cider at this point tastes disgustingly sweet. I guess I'll just let it do it's thing. I'm curious to see if the natural yeasts will survive at higher alcohol levels making a dry cider, or if they will die off before all the sugar is consumed and leave behind a sweeter cider.
10/07 - Picked apples at A's house
10/08 - Ground apples using the Vitamix
10/10 - Painstakingly strained 5 gallons of cider
11/3 - The cider has been bubbling steadily in the cool basement. The best thing probably would have been to just let it do it's thing, but I fussed with it, for a couple of reasons. First, impatience. Second, I have another batch of apples ready to go, but first I need to free up the 5 gallon carboy. So I transferred 3 gallons to the 3 gallon carboy and bottled the remaining cider (C2.0). C2.0 is cool stuff because it contains *only* apples. According to hydrometer readings, I think the cider is only 1-3% alcohol. So I added some beer yeast to the 3 gallon batch and placed it on the ground floor where it's a little bit warmer.
Fresh-pressed cider in the fridge reads 1.05, which equates to maybe 6.56% alcohol potential.
Third Batch (C3)
I picked some more apples on 10/25/15 from A's house. I put the pristine apples into storage, but 50 or so apples were a little chewed up or beaten up. I went through and removed any holes or spots from the apples, and discarded 2 ugly apples. The rest were rinsed and went into the insinkerator. I squeezed them through a (bigger) nut milk bag. 2 bagfulls, not quite full, squeezed a full gallon of cider. I'm curious to see if using rained on and rinsed apples will ferment despite the fact that most of the natural yeast could have been washed away.
Fourth Batch (C4)
10/25 - Picked lots of apples at A's, put into cool storage.
10/27 - Picked a few more apples in Clifton Park. These had some black splotch on them, so I gave them a good scrub and rinse.
11/7 - Ground all the apples in the insinkerator. Strained through the larger bag. The entire process took around 2 hours to make 5 gallons of cider. Not bad. Although straining is still a lot of hard work. Added a Belgian beer yeast and left on the ground floor (temp in the high 60's).
C1 - I don't quite understand why, but this became very dry within a little over a month. I bottled it, and the bottles didn't build up any significant carbonation.
C2 - After a month of primary fermentation, the cider was still very sweet (it went from something like 1.05->1.04 if my measurements were correct). I transferred most of it to a smaller carboy, but bottled the remains. I put some bottles in the fridge, some in the basement, and some in the kitchen. The different temperatures affected the carbonation level. A few weeks later, the fridge bottles had no significant carbonation. The kitchen bottles tasted delicious and were perfectly carbonated, so that when opening them up, they foamed up to just over the rim. I opened and recapped some of these to ensure they wouldn't blow up. I also pasteurized some. As much as I am loathe to pasteurize, the pasteurized bottle still tasted really good. Lessons learned: fermenting at room temperature is good. Bottling with sugar and yeast is difficult, although refridgeration and quick drinking can help with that. Or perhaps measuring the specific gravity, though I haven't tried this approach.